W. Steffen, K. Richardson, J. Rockström, S. E. Cornell, I. Fetzer, E. M. Bennett, R. Biggs, S. R. Carpenter, W. de Vries, C. A. de Wit, Carl Folke, D. Gerten, J. Heinke, G. M. Mace, L. M. Persson, V. Ramanathan, B. Reyers, S. Sörlin
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The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity. The concept is based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth System. This paper revises and updates the framework, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Two core boundaries have been identified: climate change and biosphere integrity.