H. J. M. van Grinsven, L. Bouwman, K. G. Cassman, H. M. van Es, M. L. McCrackin, and A. H. W. Beusen
Release Date: 

J Environ Qual

Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality.