Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (2015) 025002
The authors explore the potential of sustainable extensification of agriculture by reducing N inputs and livestock densities. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing production and consumption of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) decreases N pollution by 10%. In Europe, extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets, a change to organic farming, and the externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments
Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems
Unique complete overview of research methods assessing critical loads and dynamic risk assessments of air pollutants
This book provides a unique overview of research methods over the past 25 years assessing critical loads and temporal effects of the deposition of air pollutants. It includes critical load methods and applications addressing acidification, eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Applications include examples for each air pollution threat, both at local and regional scale, including Europe, Asia, Canada and the US. The book starts with background information on the effects of the deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and heavy metals and geochemical and biological indicators for risk assessments. The use of those indicators is then illustrated in the assessment of critical loads and their exceedances and in the temporal assessment of air pollution risks. It also includes the most recent developments of assessing critical loads and current and future risks of soil and water chemistry and biodiversity under climate change, with a special focus on nitrogen. The book thus provides a complete overview of the knowledge that is currently used for the scientific support of policies in the field of air pollution control to protect ecosystem services.
The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity. The concept is based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth System. This paper revises and updates the framework, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Two core boundaries have been identified: climate change and biosphere integrity.
J Environ Qual
Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality.
Environ. Res. Lett. 9 115012
A nitrogen (N) budget for Denmark has been developed for the years 1990 to 2010, describing the inputs and outputs at the national scale and the internal flows between relevant sectors of the economy. Significant reductions in inputs of reactive N have been achieved during these 20 years, decreasing nitrate leaching by about half. Measures to limit ammonia emissions have also reduced gaseous emissions of reactive N. The budget was used to frame a discussion of the potential for further reductions in losses of reactive N to the environment.